Dr. Jean JARRICOT, MD
Practice and Results of the Quinton Marine Method in Cases of Infantile Athrepsia and Cholera
Extract from the "CURE MARINE" International Magazine of Thalassotherapy - year 1938, No. 1., Imp. Graphica,
Rue des Pelletiers, 16, Bruges, Belgium
Translated from the French by the Ocean Plasma Team
Summary: The author elaborates how the Laws of Quinton (about the stability of seawater) provides the biological explanation of the efficient action of seawater used in injections, chiefly in some diseases of nurslings. In the present article the author studies the technical application of the Seawater treatment of athrepsia of the hypotrophies and cholera of young babies. He shows how success entirely depends on the strict observance of very definite prescriptions as to the dosage to inject according to the cases and as to the very particular kind of food children treated with seawater (Quinton plasma, Océan Plasma) must be given according to the particular cases.
Then, the author expounds some clinical effects seldom known of seawater injections: immediate effects on the biliary secretion, anaphylactic effects, autrophic effects on the central nervous system. At the end, the author gives observations of children suffering from athrepsia or serious enteritis, treated 25 years ago and even more by Quinton and about which he publishes both old and recent photographic documents which give evidence of excellent results at distant periods of time.
Dr. JEAN JARRICOT, MD
I. - INTRODUCTION
We have already treated this subject here (1), the important reasons why we need to have recourse to subcutaneous seawater injections in nutritional and growth diseases of small children. We have shown how the systematic use of seawater injections was only the end of a long series of general biological research, and notably the discovery by René Quinton's Law of Marine Constancy. We have shown why seawater should not just be considered as just another remedy, but as a vital 'milieu' (terrain) for the human cell and that the organism is nothing but a marine aquarium where its cells proliferate in essentially original conditions.
We intend to show today the results that can hopefully be achieved by having recourse to hypodermic seawater injections of seawater, as long as certain precise rules are followed.
We now have a veritable unique protocol which, when scrupulously followed, can lead to success in most cases.
Remember that we gave the name 'Law of Marine Eutrophic Constancy' to a really specific phenomenon arising from the use of seawater injections. It is this 'Law of Marine Eutrophia' that is representative of the sudden increase (in growth) of a hypotrophic child at an average rate of 800gr par month. Not only is it a demonstration of the inherent seawater activity that gives the organism, deprived of the ability to grow, the ability to prosper, right from the start of the treatment, and to grow at the maximum human cellular rate, but it is also a criterium of the treatment because, if growth is not immediately seen at that rate, one has to admit that an error was made in the application of the treatment. We insist that the Quinton Marine Method should follow certain precise rules and that's what must be done regarding the choice of injection doses. But we also have other urgent rules to be followed, and we don't know these well enough, and they happen to be the rules that govern the nutrition of the injected infant.
Just as well, if the dietetic rules continue to depart from the classical prescriptions because we are pleased to notice that the orthodox pediatricians evolve and come closer each year to the 'Quintonian' precepts. We are already far from the days when the Marine Methods were judged as revolutionary when we expounded them 16 years ago, when Quinton was still alive and wholeheartedly agreed (2).
We will devote th e first part of this work to the exposure of the precepts that need to be observed in order to ensure a successful marine treatment; and secondly, we will show, with generous examples, the order of expected results we can expect to achieve, sorted by importance. In this task, we will choose a sequence of events that was little known before our research: Long-term results of the Marine Method of past cases of athrepsia that were exposed to Marine Plasma and the Quinton Marine Method.
II. - TECHNIQUE OF QUINTON'S MARINE METHOD IN CASES OF ATHREPSIA AND HYPERTROPHIA OF INFANTS.
A. — Injection doses in cases of malnutrition:
1.) Infant cases of very low weight: 10 grams of Plasma every 24 hours for several consecutive weeks.
2.) Normal doses: 10 to 15 grams of Plasma three or four times a week.
3.) Cases of grave malnutrition where improvement is not immediate, with 10 grams per 24 hours: then increased to 30, 50 and even to 100 grams every 24 hours.
4.) Extreme cases, imminent death: whatever the age may be, start immediately with a strong dose, for the weight, e.g. 100gr or better yet two doses of 50 grams, spaced 24 hours apart. Except in cases of edema, maintaining that rhythm until definite increase of weight and then diminish progressively, especially if there is much constipation.
5.) Three general rules: a) the duration of treatment for a case of hypotrophia should never be less than 3 months; b) in all cases where the results are not satisfactory, diminish the dosage intervals and augment the quantity of doses, without any special consideration regarding age; c) if one notices fever or agitation, especially if the initial injection or first two injections have been relatively strong, do not pay any attention of such a reaction because it is without danger and will simply disappear of its own accord.
B. — Generalities for children using the Quinton Marine Method:
Three main rules: a) on no case is it necessary to gradually augment the nutritional needs; give the necessary quantity right away; b) in no case is it necessary to implement special food, like modified milk, pre-digested flour, etc. The child using the Marine Method needs only normal milk, ordinary [cereals] flour, [blended fruit is better], pure water; never should one consider weight, height, age or any other factor when implementing a nutritional program for a child, regardless of the gravity of its malnutrition. The regimen of the child, the Instinct Regimen, should be dictated by the child itself that should always be presented with a food quantity that is larger than what the child can absorb by himself at a single meal. This rule of the Instinct Regimen should never be departed from, except in three cases:
1) hernia and possibility to strangle itself;
2) presence of coleriform enteritis symptoms;
3) annual periods of great heat.
C. — Application method of the Instinct Regimen:
1.) Establishment of a program for children that are exclusively bottle-fed.
If we check neither weight nor height in order to arbitrarily establish a regimen for athreptic and hypertrophic children that are injected with seawater, such denominators (weight and height) serve more as primary indicators for the number of meals for the child than anything else.
As a matter of fact, we need to keep track of the relationships that exists between the size of the infant, its digestive capability and food importance and this determined by the difference in weight with respect to the norm (size related to age) and this is also called the 'Athreptic coefficient of Quinton' (3). A child that is little reduced as per the norm would accept larger rations as compared to a child that is more challenged with respect to its skeletal development. The latter would have a stomach capacity that is much reduced for its age and we should consequently offer him food that is spaced out over frequent meals. At any rate, at the beginning of a treatment for an athreptic child, it is evident that the child's lack of strength prevents him from getting the rations he needs to prosper and grow. This type of child should be force-fed by spoon during the time of the first injections.
It is with these reservations that we present here the number of bottle feedings and the composition of each feeding that is offered to the infant during 24 hours according to the weight and physiological condition it is in and according to the way it gets injected as we explained above.
Weight of the child
Premature, Athrepsic et Atrophic
Children more normal
Number of Feedings
Composition of each Feeding
Number of Feedings
Composition of each Feeding
Under no circumstances should the number of feeding in this table be changed. The milk can be slightly sweetened as per the usual prescriptions. When there is vomiting, one can sweeten even more but Quinton never sweetened or very little if any.
2.) Implementation of the Instinct Regimen.
We re-established the starting regimens, those that would be offered to children to somehow 'entice' them to full capacity and in all cases to permit adequate rations. However, we would never be assured of the results if the child does not leave a few grams of milk, about half of the feedings that are offered to him in 24 hours.
If the infant does not leave half of the feedings, then we augment the regimen by 3 in 3 days, each feeding by 10 gr. This way, certain infants would accept a ration of feedings of milk that are equal to one third or even up to one half of their weight in 24 hours. Facing these abundant rations, dictated by the instinct of the grave hypertrophic cases, one should verify uncertain milk supplies to see whether the milk is not too concentrated or too much diluted. But the infant will always control its own ration.
Example: An infant receives 9 feedings of 115 grams of milk, plus 10 grams of water. Seven feedings are entirely accepted; 15 grams of milk are refused in one feeding, 25 grams at another. Therefore, we would prescribe 9 feedings of 125 grams of milk, plus 10 grams of water. Of these 9 new feedings, 6 will be entirely accepted; 3 will be partially accepted. Now, we would prescribe 9 feedings of 135 grams of milk, plus 10 grams of water. Of these 9 new feedings, the infant refuses 10 grams when he receives 5 bottles a day. The proper ratio has been attained.
Using such a regimen, if the infant gains 20 to 50 grams of weight per day, one can consider that the Instinct Regimen is working. Never use the fact that the infant is gaining weight to reduce the ration, even if the child has diarrhea. Throughout the aforementioned case history, the regimen has been maintained; only the doses of injection could be slightly increased. If, on the other hand, the infant does not gain at least 20 grams per day, the regimen should be suspect and an inquiry be made.
3.) Examination of cases where the infant, following the Instinct Regimen, does not gain at least 20 grams per day.
A series of causes can prompt an infant to leave more than half of his milk feeding without being satiated:
1) The nipple might be malfunctioning
2) The feedings could be badly implemented. Check the planning method (especially in hospices and hospitals where it is not rare that the infant is left to his own resources, with his nipple in the mouth) whenever the infant is not raised or cared for by his mother.
3) A local cause might prevent feeding (hare-lip, palate perforation, oral thrush (candida),
coryza purulent hindering nasal respiration and forcing the infant to leave the nipple in order to breathe). In all of these cases, abandon the nipple and feed with a spoon.
4) The infant's muscular force can be insufficient and prevent the effort of sucking (the case of hypothermal subjects or those that weigh less than 2.5 kg). Again, feed cases such as these by spoon, abandon the nipple and prescribe quilted wrappings, hot water bottles in the crib, etc., until the rectal temperature has reached 36.8 and the weight is 2.5 kg.
5) The stomach capacity could be weak and not permit the infant to ingest the totality of milk each time it is offered to the infant. This is the most frequent cause. Therefore, an infant that refuses half of its feeding and does not gain 20 grams per day, reduce each feeding by 10 or 20 grams and increase the number of feedings by one or two in 24 hours. In most cases, one will see the subject empty all of his bottles and the weight increase by 20, 30, 40 or 50 grams per day. If results are not obtained, the infant's weight increases less than 20 grams per day, with a regimen that really satisfies, then there could be an organic cause that hinders proper development. This cause could be without consequence (dental crisis, temporary diarrhea). But it could also be hereditary syphilis or hereditary tuberculosis. [If in doubt, do the appropriate test on the mother!]
D) Even when faced with repeated regurgitations or vomiting compensating, maintain the Instinct Regimen. Reduce, if you wish, the feedings by 10 grams each, but if the weight increase diminishes, pick up the full Instinct Regimen, the only one that can assure proper maintenance and organic repair in the majority of cases.
E) When faced with pathological vomiting, maintain the Instinct Regimen. Act on the vomiting an administration of subcutaneous injection of Plasma and not by a reduction of the Regimen. In 85% of all cases, the pathological vomiting will stop by the first injection. Two hours after that injection, the infant can be fed; he will not vomit any more. If vomiting persists or resumes, then the injection was insufficient. It can be increased up to 200 grams per day. It would be an extremely rare case when vomiting persists at that dose and when feeding can be reduced. Then one should proceed as follows: Three or four feedings should be replaced by Plasma feedings, cut with 1/3 water (2 parts plasma, one part pure water). One can alternate Plasma and milk feedings (one feeding milk, one feeding Plasma, one feeding milk etc. ) As soon as the milk feedings are no longer rejected, one should stop the plasma feedings. In cases where pathological vomiting cannot be stopped, one could put the infant on an exclusive Plasma diet for 24 and even 48 hours, always cut, 1/3 with water. The diluted Plasma is eagerly accepted by the infant; it is well tolerated and maintains the weight...
F) In cases of common diarrhea, even watery, but not during the hot days of summer, one should maintain the Instinct Regimen, even without cutting milk with water beyond the prescribed limits. The child accepts whatever milk ration it feels comfortable with and augments his weight despite the diarrhea. This intestinal throughput will stop by itself after a few days or a few weeks.
G) One should never reduce milk rations with more than 20 grams water, except goat milk. That should be reduced by one quarter with sweetened water by 160 gr per 1,000 (e.g. 120 grams goat milk, 40 grams water, 6 grams sugar).
H) When the Marine Treatment is interrupted, immediately forbid the Instinct Regimen and limit the treatment to traditional doses.
4.) Cases of infants that are exclusively breast-fed and infants that receive mixed milk feedings:
One can consider any athreptic or hypotrophic infant on a famine regime if he is exclusively fed at the breast. The breast should always be emptied and the frequency of meals established as per the table shown above. A breast meal should be established after 10 minutes. This should be complemented with milk given as judged with a sufficient quantity to ensure eventual refusal by the child. If the child all feedings, the milk ration should be increased by 10 grams for each feeding. If, despite such large feedings, the increase in weight is less than 20 grams per 24 hours, then start investigating what has been prescribed. If the child is to receive mixed feedings, one should advise against exclusive breast feeding and alternate with feedings from a bottle. One then deals with it just like the preceding case when only completed feedings are authorized for each infant's meal.
III - METHODOLOGY OF QUINTON'S MARINE METHOD FOR INFANTILE CHOLERA.
A) Injection Doses.
a) In the case where an infant exhibits the classical signs such as frequent bowel movements that are like water and almost odorless, vomiting, areas of algidity (chilliness) around nose and cheeks contrasting with a hot forehead, especially when one observes the eyes rolling back, persistent imprint when touching the upper part of the thighs, soft stomach, broken voice... then we recommend the following doses: For 10 days, two injections a day, 200 grams per injection. If all is well after 10 days, one daily 200 gram injection for another 10 days. Therefore, the treatment for an infantile cholera case lasts always at least 20 days and never, without fail, would one give less than 2 injections per 24 hours for at least 10 days even when all symptoms have disappeared.
In all cases where the infant's treatment is undertaken during the pre-agonizing stage (vitreous eyes, sunken corneas, rigid muscles, radial weak pulse, slowing of respiration), then one would inject two doses of 300 or even 400 grams each during the first 24 hours, even for a very young infant.
B) Dietary Regimen for infantile cholera.
Milk exclusively at 1/10th of body weight for 8 days, 20 to 30 grams water in each milk bottle. Other than milk, two and a half hours after the bottle of milk feeding, one bottle of pure water. This water should be given for a duration of five minutes, until no longer thirsty, without arbitrary limitations for this period of time. Never a systematic diet.
C) Cases of vomiting
In general, one can say that vomiting will stop during the very first day of treatment. Only in exceptional cases (about 15% of all cases) where vomiting persists or re-appears during the treatment (complete vomiting or partial, in sudden rushes), nourish the infant with Plasma for 24 hours (2/3 Plasma and 1/3 water per bottle) this replacing milk. If vomiting starts again with vomited milk feedings, alternate milk with 1/3 Plasma - a few times. It is a fact that Plasma controls the vomiting and re-establishes normal nutrition. The stool is no longer a factor of nutrition because the improvement of the general condition precedes the intestinal improvements. If watery stools persist in some extremely rare cases then two injections every 24 hours for about 10 days. Raise this dosage when needed to 2 injections of 300 grams, for example. Never suspend milk feedings already reduced to 1/10th of body weight. Weigh the infant twice a day. Be ready to modify the regimen every 24 hours based on infant weight.
D) Cases of fever and chills.
If, prior to the start of the treatment, the infant has a high fever, place the infant in a bath that is 2-3 degrees cooler than the infant's temperature, e.g. a bath of 38° C if the infant has a fever of 40.5°. It is not necessary to give a bath if the fever follows the first injection because that will extinguish itself. In cases of fever due to illness, bathe once or twice every 24 hours for about 20 minutes, rubbing softly.
Observe bloating; if abdominal swellings appear, suspend the bath which is a delicate matter in a case of infantile cholera. During periods of chills (body temperature less than 36.7; hot stomach, feet and hands very cold), give a warming bath by progressively increasing the bath temperature from 36 to 38.5° C. Same precautions.
E) Cases of edema.
In about 10% of the time, the injection of 400 to 600 grams of Plasma of an infant within 24 hours results in edema of the extremities. This phenomenon is without consequence; it only means that the infant carries within its tissues a reserve of seawater and the solution is to simply inject a weaker dose with the next injection, e.g. 100 instead of 200 grams. In a case where edema exists BEFORE any injection is given (cachexic edema) then regular doses should be injected and in those cases, the edema will dissipate with the treatment.
IV. - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE QUINTON MARINE METHOD.
We just showed somewhat schematically but very much pragmatically as well, the basics of the applied Quinton Marine Method regarding the most serious diseases that can affect the nutrition of an infant. Anyway, we consider that for us the essential in the treatment affecting the nutrition of nurslings is not to diagnose a certain cause or causes that could have entered the picture to provoke a more or less severe nutritional problem but to have an idea, simple and clear, of the nature of the nutritional problem.
Therefore, we have chosen two afflictions, or, to be more precise, two groups of diseases that appear to be in stark contrast to each other, to better demonstrate our concept of etiology and to explain at the same time how the identical medication can play a remarkable and yet paradoxical role. For us it is the tension of dissociation of water from the organic tissues that would [and could] be influenced by the marine stimulation. As we have already made you aware (4), contrary to any artificial serum which is nothing but a simple vector of a moist ion that makes a quick and temporary appearance in the tissues, the injection of Quinton Plasma modifies the ability of tissues to bind themselves to water. In this way can we notice how the Marine Method can stop deadly dehydration from enteritis and choleriform bacteria and restore the organism of athreptic patients' ability to bind itself or associate itself to water. Do you now understand why it was necessary for us to have recourse to significant differences in the treatment that we have described? In acute cases of infantile enteritis, seawater is not only a powerful modifying agent but the vital terrain that substitutes for the losses of water.
Contrary of what one might think, in the case of athrepsia very weak doses would be sufficient, just like an infinitesimal stimulus of physico-chemical elements that precede egg development in artificial inseminations (5).
We have also looked into the mechanism of the Marine Mode of Action. In this way have we shown a conscious [elective] and immediate action on biliary function [liver] while showing how a Quinton Plasma injection can modify the intestinal content of biliary pigmentation (6).
We have also shown here, by various laboratory experiments that by now have become quite common, how seawater protects against anaphylactic shock. We explained by this observation the danger of certain sudden interruptions of the Marine Treatment - interruptions that stop the euphylactic equilibrium and entrain massive flocculations and their inherent dangers (7).
We also showed, using statistics that were collected on the infants that were treated at the Dispensaire since 1913, that we attributed to the Marine Method an unexpected eutrophic property [eutrophic = waters that are rich in nutrients and plant life]. Keeping the same proportions as to weight, height and girth of head, it is the circumference of the head which manifests, under the influence of the Marine Action, the most active growth pattern. One must remember Cuvier's words: "The nervous system is the [complete] animal - the other organs are only there to serve it [the nervous system]."
We have shown elsewhere, after Quinton, how the serious infant diseases slow the development of the perimeter of the infant's cranium and how a prolonged stoppage of the head's circumference will invariably have a fatal consequence. One can assess the importance of the influence of the Marine Method by the fact that with its use, the cranium's perimeter once again begins to grow.
These facts (and how many more... but we need to contain ourselves) can, it seems to us, lead to only one conclusion, one that we already alluded to at the start of this work. Seawater is not just another kind of medication. It is something else. Experience shows that it has revitalizing properties and that, when it is employed to profit failing organisms, everything just comes together as if seawater provides specific [life] energies to human [and animal] cells.
V. - LONG TERM RESULTS WITH ATHREPTIC INFANTS AFTER TREATMENT WITH THE MARINE METHOD.
After Quinton, Macé and many other authors, and have, in the course of the next 24 years or so, reported on many observations that were downright eye-opening. We published numberless cases accompanied with data. It is therefore doubtful that our cause can gain much by still multiplying these documents, even if they are downright amazing! We don't have the impression that we can gain further popularity with those whose spirit still resists, even if we bring a new crop of facts similar to the first batch. To the contrary, whether right or wrong, we think that we possess an argument od great value, one that we have not exhausted because we were waiting for time to act in our behalf. These are the observations, over the past 20 years or so, with ex-athreptics that were treated as a last resort. So, what happened to those kids? Were the results that were obtained durable and permanent? Were these just temporary results? Were these results just palliative or real? Wouldn't the transformation have to be reliable? Here are the facts.
First of all, we regret that we can show here only a few observations among the many that we have in our files, and the number of which grows and grows as our inquiries proceed.
Nevertheless, we deem ourselves already very lucky with the fine results we have been blessed with using the "Marine Cure", now for the second time and so generously. As far as the choices are concerned that we have made to join those four cases to our work, it is not that they are more characteristic than the others. To the contrary, we have preferred to mention only the most ordinary, the least exceptional but also the oldest ones. These observations have permitted us to go back some 25 to 27 years. Furthermore, our intentions were to publish some older cases and that task has started already (8).
Observation A. — (René Quinton) — Paul G...
Admission at the Dispensaire marin de Paris on 29 May 1912. Weight at birth (9 months), 3 kg. 900 gr. Weight gain in 5 months: 1010 gr. Behind the weight curve at admission to the Dispensaire, at age 6 moths, 9 days: 32 % (Figure 1).
Vomits constantly - right from the first month. At admission, the child vomits 7 times a day, each time half of the consumed milk. Since 3 days, appearance of acute enteritis with watery bowel movements complicated with chronic mucoid-membranous colitis that already persists for several months. Since a few days, water diet only. At arrival - 40° C. Extreme pallor, cervical, axillary and inguinal lymph nodules; skeleton completely visible; skin completely rigid, motionless, eyes half closed.
W prescribe a regimen of 1/10th; high doses of Plasma: 100 to 200 grams of Plasma per day. In 48 hours, urine, that had disappeared, becomes abundant again, the stomach becomes soft, and the bowel movements consistent. But for a whole month we had to struggle against constipation and diarrhea with muco-membranous crises whenever we lowered the daily Plasma injection dose. At that time, Quinton had not yet finalized his method and it was a typical case that required daily double-dose injections of 200 grams of Plasma. Nevertheless, weight gain stabilized, and slowly all symptoms of enteritis disappeared. From 5,000 grams at admission, on the 29th of May 1912, the child exceeds 8,450 gr, (Fig 2) 6 months later and weighs in at 11kg 300gr a year after the start of the treatment that lasted, with a few suppressive intervals, 12 months.
From then on, the health remained good. At 23 months he weighs 13 kg, 200 gr.; at 4 years and a half: 17 kg.; at 8 years 27 kg, 700 gr.
Was re-visited 25 years after the start of the treatment (May 1937), normal in all respects (Fig. 3).
Observation B — (René Quinton) — Germaine G...
Admission to the Dispensaire Marin de Paris, on 25 September 1911. Weight at birth (full term) 3 kg, 500 gr. At admission, aged 2 months 14 days, the weight is 2 kg, 340 gr. 58% weight retardation for the child's age (Fig 4).
Displays all characteristic symptoms of an athreptic. After a period of insufficient nourishment (at the breast), rapid improvement is evident after the child is subjected to the Instinct treatment. She doubled her weight in 5 months of treatment (Fig. 5). Good steady health after that. Received high doses of Plasma at the start (100 grams per day). Observed and treated for 9 months.
Seen 26 years after the start of the treatment (May 1937), normal in all respects (Figure 6).
Observation C — (René Quinton) — Sylvain J...
Admission to the Dispensaire Marin de Paris on 17 November 1909 weighing 12 kgs., 800 gr. at age 4 years and 9 months (figure 7). Was treated in town (Paris?) since 3 months. Loss of weight during this time: 1.600 grams.
At admission: sub-acute entero-colitis, phlegm and muco-membranous. Adenoids were removed during treatment. One month after admission: 13 kg, 610 gr; The child is happy but constipation persists (Fig. 8).
Weight: 15,460 gr on 12 March 1910; average weight gain of 660 gr per month. Healing of all intestinal problems just about complete despite the fact that the treatment was interrupted several times. Total duration of treatment, without keeping track of interruptions, one year.
Small doses of Plasma of 26 to 50 cc.
Was seen again 28 years after the start of the treatment (May 1937); normal in all respects (Fig. 9).
Observation D — René Quinton) — Estelle B...
At admission to the Dispensaire Marin de Paris, on 15 April 1911, weight was: 2,920 grams at age 4 months, 10 days. (Fig. 10).
Weight retardation for the age, 54%. Vomits at each feeding. Was put back on the breast after a trial feeding period on artificial milk.
The same remarks impose themselves as for the preceding case (A). Quinton had not yet stopped his Instinct Regimen with athreptics. He did not yet realize that athreptics cannot meet their nutritional needs at the breast of a nanny and remain at a famine's regimen, even if it seems that all precautions had been taken to satisfy the child's instinct. That's why the infant's growth (at the breast and insufficiently nourished) will be slow despite the treatment (fig. 11).
At 2 years, on 18 December 1912, the child still weighs only 9.30 grams; but the little patient has regained all necessary health attributes, except for the weight. Duration of treatment: one year. Frequency of high doses: 50, 75, 100 cc of Plasma, low because it was feared that dyspeptic repercussions might ensue.
...was seen again 26 years after the start of treatment (May 1937), normal in all respects (Fig. 12).
It is up to us to judge whether pediatric therapy with infantile athrepsia and cholera without seawater is capable of giving quality results such as we have provide here. Let's once more insist and focus our attention on two points that we deem so very important.
The first is that, after 25 years, a method can be considered to have stood the test of time. If such a method continues to give the results that were first obtained by its promoter, then such a method is decisive as it is with the Quinton Marine Method.
The second point is that the Quinton Marine Method and seawater injections are not one and the same. The Marine Method implies the use of seawater injections but the Method requires observance and adherence to some strict rules, notably in the area of diet. It is absolutely vain to want to inject seawater into patients and at the same time follow a conformist diet. All complementary medication is permitted during the course of a Marine Treatment [that statement would be debatable in the year 2005!] but it would be an unspeakable error to pretend to apply the Marine Method while refusing the precise rules that we have outlined here.
(1) J. Jarricot — Les théories marines de René Quinton et leur application thérapeutique. La Cure Marine, IS33.
(2) J. Jarricot — Le Dispensaire marin, organisme nouveau de puériculture - Masson à Paris 1921 - l vol. de 630 pages, 140 figures.
(3) The Quinton athrepsia coefficient, or the coefficient of malnutrition, expresses itself by the relationship of an infant's weight as compared to the weight it should be at according to its height (Quinton's growth table in J. Jarricot's Dispensaire Marin). This coefficient permits (and is the only one to do so) to express with one number the true loss of weight of an infant that could conceivaly be small for its age and yet exhibit normal growth patterns for its height. The true loss of weight can therefore only be calculated when compared to an infant's height. This coefficient of malnutrition respects the divergence of weight as compared to height and permits the expression in percentage as a departure from ideal weight as presented by one infant as well as a bunch of children.
(4) J. Jarricot — Du choix d'un sérum dans le choléra infantile. Serums alcalinisants ou Plasma de Quinton? La Vie Médicale. Juin 19S6.
(5) J. Jarricot — Quinton biologiste et les principes de sa méthode en thérapeutique infantile. La Vie Médicale, sept, 193B.
(6) J. Jarricot — La réaction au sublimé acétique de Triboulet chez les nourrissons injectés au sérum de Quinton. Journal des médecins praticiens de Lyon, 1913.
(7) J. Jarricot — Le pouvoir euphylactique de l'eau de mer; in le Dispensaire Marin, p. 416 et suiv, 1921.
(8) J. Jarricot — Les résultats que donne la méthode marine sont-ils durables? Observations avec résultats éloignés. Le Plasma de Quinton, fascicule 5, juin 1937.
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